Trauma is a subjective experience. Different people react in different ways to traumatic events, and what resonates with one person as traumatic may not resonate with another individual as such. Psychological trauma can result from a single life-threatening event (such as a sexual assault, car accident, or natural disaster) or severe, chronic or repetitive stress (such as childhood abuse, neglect, domestic violence, bullying, combat).

Complex Trauma

Complex trauma is repeated direct infliction of harm and mistreatment (abuse, neglect, abandonment, exploitation, hostility) by primary caregiver(s), authority figures, or other presumed responsible adults. Complex trauma most frequently occurs in childhood or adolescence, however it can take place later in life.

Single-Event Trauma

Single-event trauma is a one-time, life-threatening event.

Developmental and Relational Trauma

Developmental trauma is trauma that takes place in childhood and occurs when normal emotional and/or physical development/well-being is hindered due to the insufficient fulfillment of the basic needs for attachment, attunement, trust, independence, and love.


The response to trauma is both physical and emotional. For this reason, in working with individuals who have experienced trauma, I take a two-part approach that aims to resolve the physical and emotional effects of trauma. Trauma often induces a sense of powerlessness and a lack of safety, thus it is profoundly important to me to that my clients feel empowered and safe while working through their trauma.

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